Acerca de

NOTES

1. To avoid doublecounting, political deaths are excluded and the only numbers included are the 400,000 individuals
whom Margolin estimated died in the systemic failures of forced ruralization. For more comprehensive estimates
of rural deaths, Ben Kierman estimates a much larger number although his numbers are almost impossible to
untangle from the numbers of political dissidents, and thus they are not included here.  

Margolin, J. (1999). Cambodia: The Country of Disconcerting
Crimes. In The Black Book of Communism (2nd ed., pp. 591.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Kiernan, Ben. (2014). Table 4. Approximate Death Tolls in
Democratic Kampuchea, 1975-1979.The Pol Pot Regime:
Race, Power, and Genocide in Cambodia Under the Khmer
Rouge, 1975-79. Yale University Press. (2014). p. 458. Print.

2. This figure includes only those villagers killed in the countryside during the Great Leap Forward and does not
purport to be comprehensive (Wang 270).  It is important to note that these deaths were not the result of
drought; they were primarily the result of governmental malfeasance and, secondarily, systemic failure of the
Marxist imposition on agriculture.  Please note the following:

 

  • According to journalist Yang Jisheng, the famine was "a tragedy unprecedented in world

history for tens of millions of people to starve to death and to resort to cannibalism during a period of
normal climate patterns with no wars or epidemics" (14).

  • One witness reported that literally tons of fruit were rotting in 1959 although the State

issued the order "absolutely no opening the granary door even if people are dying of starvation"

(Chang and Halliday 429-430).

  • The State exported 7 million tons of grain from 1958-1959, which would have provided

840 calories per day for 38 million people--easily the difference between life and death
(Chang and Halliday 429-430).

  • Chang and Halliday also write of, "meat, cooking oil, eggs, and other foodstuffs that were

exported in very large quantities.  Had this food not been exported (and instead distributed
according to humane criteria), very probably not a single person in China would have had
to die of hunger" (430).

  • Due to systemic failures in the centrally controlled economy, the rural areas that produced

the most food were given, per capita, the least to eat (Meng, Qian, and Yared 1568-1570).

Chang, Jung, and Jon Halliday. The Unknown Mao. New York:
Anchor, 2006. 429-430. Print.

Jisheng, Yang. Tombstone. Trans. Stacy Mosher and Guo Jian. Ed.
Edward Friedman, Guo Jian, and Stacy Mosher. New York: Farrar,
Straus and Giroux, 2012. 14 Print.

Meng, Xin, Nancy Qian, and Pierre Yared. "The Institutional Causes
of China's Great Famine, 1959-1961." Review of Economic Studies 82
(2015): 1568-570. Web. 21 July 2016.

Wang Weizhi, Contemporary Chinese Population,.Xu Dixin, editor.
Reported by Jasper Becker. In Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine.
New York: The Free Press, 1996. 270. Print.

3. The number 250,000 is an average of estimated deaths resulting from an attempt to force nomads

into collectives in a policy referred to as "villagization."  As geographer Michael Foucher,

as well as international health researcher Bernt Lindtjørn, contends--these deaths were

primarily the results of socialist policies and, moreover, did not occur in drought-stricken areas.

Foucher, M. reported by Santamaria, Y. (1999). Afrocommunism: Ethiopia, Angola, and Mozambique.

In The Black Book of Communism (2nd ed.,p. 694). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Lindtjorn, B., & Kloos, H. (1993). Famine and Malnutrition. In H. Kloos
& Z. Zein (Eds.), The Ecology of Health and Disease in Ethiopia (p. 103).
Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

4. According to Nicolas Werth in The Black Book of Communism, the number includes the death of 4 million
peasants in Ukraine and one million deaths, mostly nomadic, in Kazakhstan (Werth 167). Deducted from
the total 6 million deaths given elsewhere in the book (Courtois 10), this figure leaves approximately
one million famine deaths that occurred in more urban areas, such as Kharkiv, Krasnodar, Stavropol, and
others (Werth 167).  Figures from the earlier famine in the 1920s have not been included because there is
a legitimate, if weak, argument that emphasizes the role of natural causes and war-time mobilization in the famine.

Courtois, Stephane. "Introduction: The Crimes of Communism." The
Black Book of Communism. Trans. Jonathan Murphy and Mark Kramer.
Second ed. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1999. 10. Print.

Werth, Nicolas. "A State against Its People: The Great Famine."
The Black Book of Communism. Trans. Jonathan Murphy and
Mark Kramer. Second ed. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1999. 160-167. Print.

5. Information Office of the State Council, Tibet—Its Ownership and Human Rights Situation,
Beijing, September 22, 1992 as rptd. by Department of Information & International Relations,
Central Tibetan Administration, in Tibet Under Communist China, p. 10

6. While precise figures are not known, estimates range anywhere from 1-5 million.  

3 million is merely a rounded average.

rptd.by Margolin, Jean-Louis in The Black Book of Communism.
"China: A Long March into Night." Harvard University Press,
Cambridge, 1999.  479. Print.

7. For our purposes, most kulaks are numbered in the villager category--resulting in a
lower number than that which is seen in other historical accounts.

Werth, Nicolas. The Black Book of Communism.

2nd ed.Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1999. 155. Print.

8. While precise figures are not known, 100,000 is considered a minimum;  300,000
a maximum. From these numbers the Party itself concluded that some of their
victims had been mislabeled as landowners.

rptd. by Brown, David. "Vietnam Quickly Shutters‘Land Reform’ Exhibit."

Asia Sentinel . 13 Sep 2014.Online.

9. Not a firm mortality figure, the estimate is based on the most conservative
number from various reports. Though numbers in the reports vary, all agree
that Cambodian  monks were nearly driven extinct. According to Jean-Louis
Margolin in the Black Book of Communism, the number of Buddhist monks
was 60,000 at the beginning of the Khmer Rouge regime, and by 1979, only
1,000 were still alive. This loss would include those who willingly defrocked,
as well as those few to die of natural causes between 1975-79. 

When interviewed by freelance writer Robert Hirschfield, Cambodian
monk Sol Mang, a first-hand survivor of the Khmer Rouge, stated
"“The Khmer Rouge killed almost all the monks in Cambodia. Before
the Khmer Rouge, there were 50,000 monks. The Khmer Rouge left
only 3,000 alive. I didn’t want to see Buddhism die out in my
country, so I became a monk.”

Here, I err on the conservative side and choose to include
Hirschfield's figures rather than Margolin's.

Hirschfield, Robert. "The Khmer Rouge killed
almost all the monks in Cambodia." Matador Network.
13 Oct 2011: n. page. Web. 28 Nov. 2014.

Margolin, Jean-Louis in The Black Book of Communism.
"Cambodia: The Country of Disconcerting Crimes." Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  p. 591. Print.

10. Patterson, M. (2002). "Telling the story of a brutal time." National
Catholic Reporter, 38(12), 4-5. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/
docview/215308159?accountid=11259

 

 

 

11. Cabrita cites the Jehovah's Witnesses publication Awake!, which reported,
"'Almost all the 7000 witnesses of Jehovah's Witnesses in Mozambique
had been imprisoned'. A house-to-house hunt was launched to find and
arrest men, women and children.  Men were arrested at their places of
work without being able to contact their families. In many cases, says
Awake!, the arrests were accompanied by 'brutal beatings'. Referring
specifically to events in Gaza, Awake!, reported the imprisonment of
two small congregations of Jehovah's Witnesses ordered by the provin-
cial governor who had them beaten.  The magazine mentioned an incident
in the town of Magude, where 'thirteen Witnesses were arrested, beaten
and forced to dig up trees with their fingers.  Then their legs and arms
were tied and they were rolled around like drums'.

"One of the 'final destinations' where the Jehovah's Witnesses were
sent was the Naisseko re-education camp in Niassa.   The treatment
meted out to them at the camp was the subject of a government weekly
editorial, which said that the witnesses 'were tortured, their arms tied
with ropes soaked in salt'.  Many of the Witnesses 'were crippled for life'."

 

Cabrita, Jodao M.. Mozambique : The Tortuous Road to
Democracy. Gordonsville, VA, USA: Palgrave Macmillan,
2001. ProQuest ebrary, pp. 121-123. Web. 29 December 2014.

 

12. Kumar, Janugrah. "North Korea Appears to Be Starving, Mass
Killing Prison Inmates," Christian Post. 8 Dec. 2014. Available
< http://www.christianpost.com/news/north-korea-appears-to-be-
starving-mass-killing-prison-inmates-130806/

13. Paczkowski, Andrzej. "Poland, the 'Enemy Nation'." Trans. Murphy
and Kramer The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression.
4th. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001. 382. Print.

14. Luxmoore, Jonathan. "The Iron Curtain's secrets: Communist persecution
of Christians revealed." The Tablet. 23 Jan. 1999. Web. available:
>https://web.archive.org/web/20150920151325/http://archive.thetablet.co
.uk/article/ 23rd-january-1999/6/the-iron-curtains-secrets

 

15. This figure has been derived from a study commissioned by Boris Yeltsin in 1995

(Luxmoore 1999). Luxmoore, Jonathan. "The Iron Curtain's secrets: Communist persecution
of Christians revealed." The Tablet. 23 Jan. 1999. Web. available: >https://web.
archive.org/web/20150920151325/http://archive.thetablet.co.uk/article/23rd-
january-1999/6/the-iron-curtains-secrets

 

16. Антирелигиозная Азбука-- 1933. 2011. Photograph. Web ParkWeb. 23 Dec 2014.

available <http://www.webpark.ru/comment/antireligioznaya-azbuka-1933-god

17. Rabinovich, M. . Struggle Against Religion Is
Struggle for Socialism!. 1930s. Photograph. The
State Museum of the History of Religion, Saint
Petersburg, Russia. Web. 22 Dec 2014.

<http://gmir.ru/eng/expo/vistavki/vistavka_archive/36/860.html>

18. Margolin, Jean-Louis and Pierre Rigoulot.
"Tibet:Genocide on the Rooftop of the World'."
The Black Book of Communism: Crimes,
Terror, Repression. 4th. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 2001. 544. Print.

19. Council of Europe: Secretariat of the Framework Convention for
the Protection of National Minorities, Report Submitted by Bulgaria
Pursuant to Article 25, Paragraph 1 of the Framework Convention
for the Protection of National Minorities , 9 April 2003, ACFC/SR
(2003)001, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4254ebdb4.html
[accessed 5 August 2016]  11-12.

20. While precise figures are not known, estimates range anywhere from 300,000-500,000.  
The number 400,000 is merely a rounded average.

rptd.by Nicolas Werth in The Black Book of Communism. "The Dirty War."
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  102. Print.

21. archived photo, courtesy of  Church of the Assumption Website (translated).  
http://klin-demianovo.ru/wp-content/upload/2012/01/x_a4b1f549.jpg

 

22. The Truth and Reconciliation Committee. Rptd. by British Broadcasting
Corporation, . "Coca Country." Amazon: Bruce Parry Explores the Greatest
River on Earth. n.d. n. Retrieved Web. 11 Aug. 2014.
<http://www.bbc.co.uk/amazon/sites/cocacountry/pages/content.shtml>.

 

23. According to Pacsal Fontaine in The Black Book of Communism; 11,000 tribesmen
constitutes an average of the estimated range (7,000 to 15,000) driven to Honduras by the
Sandinistas; while 10,000 were driven inland, and  "as many as"14,000 were imprisoned in Nicaragua.

 

Fontaine, Pascal. "Communism in Latin America: The Sandinistas and the
Indians." Trans. Array The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror,
Repression. 4th. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001. 668-669. Print.

 

24. Perlez, Jane. "A Stalinist Dowager in Her Bunker." New York Times, Late
Edition (East Coast) ed.: 4. Jul 08 1997. ProQuest. Web. 23 Jan. 2016 .

 

25. Santamaria, Yves, The Black Book of Communism.
"Afrocommunism: Ethiopia, Angola, and Mozambique."
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  700. Print.

 

 

26. Ganev,Venelin I., Sharlanov, Dinyu,  and Hannah Arendt Center. Crimes Committed
by the Communist Regime in Bulgaria. PDF.

 

 

27. Margolin asserts that, on the average, estimates of executions are approximately 500,000.  
He then cites Henri Locard reporting a range of 400,000-600,000 prison deaths, which also
averages 500,000. Individuals dying due to ruralization are classified as "villagers" for our
purposes; thus they are not classified as "dissidents" in order to avoid doublecounting.

 

Margolin, J. (1999). Cambodia: The Country of Disconcerting Crimes.
In The Black Book of Communism (2nd ed.), pp. 591. Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Harvard University Press.

 

28. As this figure is "likely" an underestimate, it would seem prudent to first acknowledge
the weaknesses in the calculation as well as to explicate the methodology:

1) The number includes no deaths following 1990.
2) The number relies on a figure prefaced by Jean-Louis Margolin's admission that
"although the estimates are quite speculative, it is clear that there were between 6 million
and 10 million deaths as a direct result of the Communist actions" (463).  While a 40%
margin of error is no small thing, our figure rests on the lowest number: 6 million.
Margolin then states that "perhaps" 20 million "'counter-revolutionaries'" died in
prison, a figure that we rely on, and a figure that does not include deaths from the
civil war (464). We have added 20 million urban deaths (rounded from 20.5)
from the Great Leap Forward, which consists of the most commonly estimated total
of 40 million deaths (Wang 271) minus the 19.5 million villager deaths (Wang 270)
counted among the Chinese villager totals (Wang 270 / Annotation 2). Three million
deaths have been subtracted to prevent doublecounting the deaths of Chinese
kulaks--a total that was itself a rounded average of Margolin's estimated range
of 1-5 million (479).

 

Margolin, Jean-Louis,  The Black Book of Communism.
"China: A Long March into Night." Harvard University
Press, Cambridge, 1999.  479. Print.

 

Wang Weizhi, Contemporary Chinese Population,.Xu Dixin, editor.
Reported by Jasper Becker. In Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine.
New York: The Free Press, 1996. 270-271. Print.

 

 

29. The book puts the number of executed prisoners at 15,000-17,000; thus the
16,000 figure is an average. These figures do not include any executions since 2000.

Fontaine, Pascal., The Black Book of Communism. "The
Third World: Communism in Latin America" Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  664. Print.

30 .Fontaine, Pascal., The Black Book of Communism. "The
Third World: Communism in Latin America" Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  657-658. Print.

31. According to Bartosek, 43,000 dissidents died in prison
and 736 were outright executed; thus 44,000 is rounded.

Bartosek, Karel, The Black Book of Communism. "The
Other Europe: Central and Southeastern Europe." Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  408. Print.

 

 

32. This figure includes only political prisoners who were killed in 1977-1978 as reported
in trials in Addis Ababa (p. 690). In order to avoid counting military deaths, none of
the 80,000 individuals who were killed in the "Total War" declared against secessionists
in 1978-1980 are counted, despite the fact that many of the casualties were civilians (692).  
For this reason, 10,000 is a lower-end estimate.

Santamaria, Yves, The Black Book of Communism. "Afro-
communism: Ethiopia, Angola, and Mozambique." Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  Print.

33. According to historian Tamas Stark, the approximate number of deported Hungarian
prisoners was between 500,000 and 626,000 (158), and the total number of civilian
prisoners between 100,000 and  200,000 (159). We are thus working with an approx-
imation of 150,000 civilians. Stark concludes that according to registration and transport
records, approximately 1/3 of all prisoners died  (i.e., roughly 200,000 of the roughly
600,000 prisoners referenced earlier) (167). A 1/3 fatality rate would put the number of
deceased civilians at 50,000.

Stark, Tamas. "'Malenki Robot' – Hungarian Forced
Labourers in the Soviet Union (1944–1955)." Minorities
Research: Minorities History. 2005. pdf.

34. The figures are obtained as follows. According to John Norton Moore, approximately
2,000 political dissidents were killed by the Sandinistas (COSEP study rptd. by Moore
143). Roger Miranda and William Ratliff then cite the "disappearances" of 3,000 diss-
idents (193). As of 1996, more than 1,100 (rounded here to 1,000) of these disappear-
ances were yet to be accounted for and thus were presumed dead. (Trigueros, as reported
by Rohter). Between More and Trigueros' figures, the number 3,000 is obtained. As is the
case throughout the website, military and war deaths are not included.

In terms of the numbers of dissidents tortured, J. Michael Waller refers to "atrocities" in
which  "allegations include widespread torture, kidnapping, rape, mutilation and murder"
and he quotes Nicaraguan Permanent Human Rights Commission chief Lino Hernandez
as having evidence for 14,000 cases.  To avoid any possibility of double-counting, the
aforementioned 3,000 killings  are deducted here from the 14,000 atrocities, which purport
to include murders.

Miranda, Roger & William Ratliff,  The Civil War in Nicaragua:
Inside the Sandinistas. "The Sentinel of the People's Happiness."  
Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, 1993. Print.

Moore, John, The Secret War in Central America. " University
Publications of America, Frederick, Maryland, 1987.  Print.

Rohter, Larry. "Nicaragua Now Plans to Look Into Where the
Bodies Are Buried." The New York Times 6 Nov. 1996, World
sec. 2016. Web. 26 May 2016.

Waller, J. Michael. "Will Sandinistas Face Justice?" Insight on
the News 15.27 (1999). Web. 29 May 2016.

 

 

35. Glazov, Jamie. "The Black Book of the Sandinistas." Frontpage Magazine. N.p., 21
Nov. 2006. Web. 23 June 2016. Available < http://archive.frontpagemag.com/
readArticle.aspx?ARTID=1618

36. Rigoulot, Pierre,  The Black Book of Communism. "Crimes, Terror, and Secrecy in
North Korea." Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  564. Print.

37. Statiev, Alexander. "The Borderline Societies in the Interwar Period." The Soviet
Counterinsurgency in the Western Borderlands. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge UP,
2010. 49. Print.

38. Gillet, Kit. "Romania reopens door on brutal communist era." The Christian Science
Monitor. N.p., 29 Oct. 2013. Web. 3 Apr. 2017.2.

39. Per historian Stephane Courtois, approximately 20 million U.S.S.R. citizens
were killed under Soviet regimes (4).  Courtois has made an effort to limit his figures
to civilian casualties (4).

In the figures for Communism at "Peace," several adjustments to Courtois' total
have been made. Initially, the number of deaths is reduced from 20 million to 15
million because 5 million victims of the first famine have been deliberately excluded from
this website's numbers. Those numbers are excluded because a drought was an aggravating
factor in the first famine and because the first famine was indirectly connected to war
conditions. Further adjustments are then made to prevent doublecounting. Thus the
numbers of citizens killed in the second famine--numbers that are included elsewhere in
this site--are further subtracted, as are the total numbers killed among the clergy and in
the decossackization and dekulakization campaigns. The total then rounds to 8 million.

 

Courtois, Stephane, The Black Book of Communism. "Introduction:
The Crimes of Communism." Harvard University Press, Cambridge,
1999.  4. Print.

 

40. Excluding military deaths and suicides, The Tibet Post International lists 765,680 Tibetan
deaths. Although Jean Margolin in The Black Book of Communism casts doubt on the num-
ber of military deaths and total deaths claimed by the Tibetan government (rptd. by Yeshe
Choesang), Margolin's own estimate of a figure as high as 800,000 corroborates the govern-
ment figures when adjusted downward to eliminate military deaths and suicides.  To eliminate
redundancies, the number of village deaths (340,000) is further deducted.  This leaves a rounded
total of 426,000 dissident deaths.

Margolin, J. (1999). "Tibet: Genocide on the Rooftop."
In The Black Book of Communism (2nd ed., p. 546.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

41. Margolin, J. (1999). "Tibet: Genocide on the Rooftop." In The Black Book of
Communism (2nd ed., p. 544. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

 

42. The number 25,000 is given by Michael Lavers of the Washington Blade, who writes of "labor
camps to which the government sent more than 25,000 gay men and others deemed unfit for
military service," while Michael Z. Wise, former Reuters foreign correspondent, writes in the
New York Times of "thousands of homosexuals [who] were sent to concentration camps in the
late 1960s, together with others deemed deviant." The highest estimate appears in the Advocate,
where writer  Odalys Nanin puts the number of [specifically] gays in UMAP at 60,000 although
her numbers are so inconsistent with other available figures as to be dubious.

Lavers, Michael K. "Cuban LGBT Activists Cite Progress,Ongoing Harassment."

Washington Blade 17 Sept. 2012.Web. 2 July 2015

 

Wise, Michael Z. "In Totalitarian Cuba, Ice Cream and Understanding."

Movies. New York Times 22 Jan. 1995.
Web. 29 June 2016

43. Fuente: AFP. “Sendero Luminoso Amenaza a Los Gays De Peru.” Perfil.com:Internacional.
20 May 2007. Web. 25 Feb. 2016.

 

44. As Dr. Iwona Zielinska-- of the Centre for Criminological Research--reports,
in the 1970s the Polish Security Apparatus (SA) apprehended homosexuals
through sting operations and blackmailed them to inform on "subversive
acquaintances." Indeed, this has been cited as the reason Michael Foucoult
left the country.  The numbers affected by this operation are not available.

 

Zielinska, Iwona. "Who Is Afraid of Sexual Minorities?
Homosexuals, Moral Panic and the Exercise of Social Control."
(2011). The University of Sheffield. Web. 22 June 2015.
<http://www.webcitation.org/5wMX7ip2H>.

 

45. Judah, S. (2012, Jun 07). "Pink persecution flourished under red flag." The
[London]Times Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/
1018964850?accountid=11259

46. According to journalist Stefan Schultz, gays were imprisoned or even
executed during the Cultural Revolution, and homosexuality was illegal
until 1997. These facts are corroborated by the International Gay and
Lesbian Human Rights Commission who document the fact of gay imprison-
ment, as well as the fact  of conditions so harsh that 18 Chinese individuals, even
as recently as the late 1990s, were given U.S. asylum  
due to homosexual persecution.  

Ultimately, considering the sheer numbers of persecuted individuals within groups
targeted by the Cultural Revolution (eg., the intelligentsia, who comprised a sizable
percentage of more than a million persecuted Chinese), it is reasonable to assume that
any such targeted groups would face violence, imprisonment, or--at the very least--
nearly total repression. Because of a paucity of records, it is unlikely that the numbers
of Chinese homosexuals facing persecution will ever be known. All that can be said with
certainty is that persecution at the hands of the government did take place.

 

Schultz, Stefan. "Gay in China: Suffering in a Marriage of Convenience."Spiegal Online International. 8 Mar. 2013. Web. 11 Aug. 2015.
 

International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commision [sic]
Country Packet Supporting Documentation for Asylum Claims,
China #4: Status of Sexual Minorities. New York, 1997.
35, 42, 57, 85. Online.  Available > https://web.archive.org/web
/20120326071821/ http://www.asylumlaw.org/docs/sexualminorities/
China%204% 20SO%20%5B97-2000%5D.pdf

47. While precise figures are not known, The New York Times indicates a broad estimate of

between 25 and 300 people. 160 is merely a rounded average.

Bernstein, R. (2003, Jun 16). "In eastern germany, 1953 uprising
is remembered." New York Times Retrieved from
http://search.proquest.com/docview/432426639?accountid=11259

 

48. Fontaine, Pascal. "Communism in Latin America: The Sandanistas and the Indians."
Trans. Array The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. 4th.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001. 668. Print.

49. Siegelbaum, Lewis. "1961: Novocherkassk Massacre." Seventeen
Moments in Soviet History 2014. Online.

50. Smith, James F. "Left-Wing Unions Prove Tough Adversary for Peru's Maoist
Guerrilla Movement." Los Angeles Times 17 Aug. 1989. Web. 21 Jan. 2015.
<http://articles.latimes.com/1989-08-17/news/mn-744_1_union-movement>.

 

51. The 101 figure is derived from several sources reporting on several related instances.
While precise figures are not known, the Associated Press's estimates for Poznan range
from 53 to 74.  The number 65 is merely a rounded average. The reasons for the demon-
strations are taken from the Poznan website.

"Reasons for the outbreak - Poznań June 1956 uprising" - Poznan.pl
http://www.poznan.pl/mim/czerwiec56/en/reasons-for-the-outbreak,p,3043.html

Press, Associated. "POLES REMEMBER 1956 POZNAN RIOT." Boston Globe
(pre-1997 Fulltext): 1. Jun 28 1982. ProQuest. Web. 21 Mar. 2015 .

 

According to official figures reported by historian Andrzej Paczkowski, 45 workers were
killed during protests on the Baltic coast in 1970. Moreover, police beatings were in the thousands.

 

Paczkowski, Andrzej. "Poland, the 'Enemy Nation'." Trans. Murphy and
Kramer The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. 4th.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001. 386-387. Print.

 

52. Werth contends that the number of strikers killed by the Bolsheviks was between

2,000 and  4,000. Three thousand is listed as an average.

rptd.by Nicolas Werth in The Black Book of Communism. "The
Dirty War." Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  88. Print.

53. Dispute involved strikers in approximately 24 factories in the summer of 1975 in Hangzhou.

Forster, Kieth rptd. by Sheehan, Jackie. Chinese Workers:

A New History. 2nd edition. London, New York: Routledge, 2002. 146. Print.

54. Fontaine, Pascal. "Communism in Latin America: Cuba--Interminable Totalitarianism in
the Tropics" Trans. Array The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression.
4th. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001. 650. Print.

55. Cuban Democratic Directorate, . "U.S. labor leaders appeal to Castro to release imprisoned
trade unionists: Cuban Workers Given Lengthy Jail Sentences For Efforts to Form Free
Trade Unions ." Directorio. Directorio Democrático Cubano, 2006. Web. 17 Jan 2015.
<http://www.directorio.org/pressreleases/ note.php?note_id=1047>.

Notes

56. Halpin, Tony. "Gulags Reveal Awful Secrets." The Australian. N.p., 18 July 2011.
Web. 13 Aug. 2016. <http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/gulags-reveal-awful
-secrets/story-e6frg6so-1226096743081>.

57.  Cambodia

Margolin, J. (1999). Cambodia: The Country of Disconcerting Crimes.
In The Black Book of Communism (2nd ed.), p. 603. Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Harvard University Press.

China

Jisheng, Yang  (2008). Tombstone: The Great Chinese Famine, 1958-1962.
p. 41. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

North Korea

Struck, Doug. "Opening a Window on North Korea's Horrors." The Washington
Post. N.p., 04 Oct. 2003. Web. 16 Aug. 2016.

Soviet Union

Lukov, Yaroslav. "Ukraine marks great famine anniversary." BBC Online  22 Nov. 2003.
26 Aug. 2016. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3229000.stm>

58.Bartosek, Karel, The Black Book of Communism. "The
Other Europe: Central and Southeastern Europe." Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  421. Print.

 

59. Cambodia

Margolin, J. (1999). Cambodia: The Country of Disconcerting Crimes.
In The Black Book of Communism (2nd ed.), p. 610-611. Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Harvard University Press.

China

Margolin, Jean-Louis,  The Black Book of Communism.
"China: A Long March into Night." Harvard University
Press, Cambridge, 1999.  492. Print.

 

60. Shearer, David. Policing Stalin's Socialism: Repression
and Social Order in the Soviet Union, 1924‑1953.
“The Mechanics of Mass Purging” Yale University Press,
2009. 344. Print.

61. Snyder, Timothy. "Hitler vs. Stalin: Who Killed More?"  The New York
Review of Books 58.4 (2011): n. pag. Web. 19 Nov. 2016.

 

 

 

 

62. Ghosh, Palash. "How Many People Did Joseph Stalin Kill?" International
Business Times. 5 March 2013. Web. 19 Nov. 2016

 

 

 

63. Ibid

 

 

 

64. This figure includes only urban dwellers killed in the countryside during the Great Leap Forward and does not
purport to be comprehensive (Wang 270).  It is important to note that these deaths were not the result of
drought; they were primarily the result of governmental malfeasance and, secondarily, systemic failure of the
Marxist imposition on agriculture.  Please note the following (also available in annotation 2):

 

According to journalist Yang Jisheng, the famine was "a tragedy unprecedented in world

history for tens of millions of people to starve to death and to resort to cannibalism during a period of
normal climate patterns with no wars or epidemics" (14).

One witness reported that literally tons of fruit were rotting in 1959 although the State

issued the order "absolutely no opening the granary door even if people are dying of star-
vation" (Chang and Halliday 429-430).

The State exported 7 million tons of grain from 1958-1959, which would have provided

840 calories per day for 38 million people--easily the difference between life and death
(Chang and Halliday 429-430).

Chang and Halliday also write of, "meat, cooking oil, eggs, and other foodstuffs that were

exported in very large quantities.  Had this food not been exported (and instead distributed
according to humane criteria), very probably not a single person in China would have had
to die of hunger" (430).

Chang, Jung, and Jon Halliday. The Unknown Mao. New York:
Anchor, 2006. 429-430. Print.

Jisheng, Yang. Tombstone. Trans. Stacy Mosher and Guo Jian. Ed.
Edward Friedman, Guo Jian, and Stacy Mosher. New York: Farrar,
Straus and Giroux, 2012. 14 Print.  

Wang Weizhi, Contemporary Chinese Population,.Xu Dixin, editor.
Reported by Jasper Becker. In Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine.
New York: The Free Press, 1996. 270. Print.

65. Bartosek, Karel, The Black Book of Communism. "The
Other Europe: Central and Southeastern Europe." Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  421. Print.

66. Iliesiu, Sorin. Signatories to the Appeal for the International
Condemnation of the Criminality and Illegitimacy of Comm-
unism, Open Letter to The United Nations · The Parliamentary
Assembly of the Council of Europe · Civil Society in the Former
Communist Countries. : Attached Report. 7. Nov. 2006. Web.
2 Jan. 2017.

 

alphabet cover.jpg

Children's Anti-religion Alphabet
Book:  Soviet Primer, 1933 (16)

The struggle against religion is the str

Soviet Propaganda Poster:

"The struggle against religion is the struggle for socialism!!" (17)